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Archaeotrek—Alternate Perceptions Magazine, February 2016

Marietta, Ohio’s Ancient Earthworks: Star Alignments as a Portal to the Path of Souls

by: Dr. Greg Little

In the January, 2016 issue of AP, several important stellar alignments at the 2,200-year old Native American earthworks in Portsmouth, Ohio were confirmed. These alignments were found on the Winter Solstice (in 200 B.C.E.) directly in line with the three major earthwork/mound components at the site. The alignments included (horizon) sight paths to the setting of the Cygnus Constellation, the rise and setting of Orion’s Nebula, combined with the Scorpius Constellation being below the horizon and not visible. All three of these stellar elements are necessary requirements in the ancient Mound Builder’s beliefs in the journey of the soul after death.

The Path of Souls—The Death Journey

As detailed in The Path of Souls (2014), archaeological research in the mid-2000’s led to a near complete understanding of the meaning of curious symbols found on artifacts that had been recovered at many American mound and earthwork sites. In brief, America’s ancient Mound Builders—the Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippian cultures—believed in a journey of departed souls to the stars and beyond. The journey of the dead goes by the term “Path of Souls.” The soul’s journey had to take place in the Winter when the constellation of Scorpius was below the horizon and not visible. This was because Scorpius was the ruler of the underworld and would snatch the soul if the constellation was visible when the soul started the journey. A video depicts all of the elements of this belief system.

The soul of the deceased, the part of the soul that retained the essence of the individual, was called the “free soul.” A few days after death, the free soul made a journey to the west to a body of water. There, at night and before dawn, the free soul took a leap into the sky aiming at Orion’s Nebula, just before it set into the western horizon. Orion’s Nebula was viewed as a portal to the sky world and then to the true path. From this portal the soul passed safely through the underworld and transitioned to the Milky Way where it continued the journey. The Milky Way was seen as a river of other souls making the same journey and was the pathway all souls took. On the path there were various tasks, but the soul eventually made it to a fork in the path. The fork was the Dark Rift of the Milky Way, where it splits into two sides. At this split, the soul encountered a judge of sorts represented by a large raptor bird. The Constellation of Cygnus was the bird. If the soul passed the tests, the soul was allowed to make a final journey out of the sky dome through a portal believed to be the star Deneb, the brightest star of Cygnus.

Many ancient mound and earthwork sites are known to have been used for complex rituals involving ceremonies designed to assist souls to make the journey. Exquisite artifacts bearing intriguing symbols were used during the ceremonies, which were conducted in sacred spaces formed by mound and geometric earthwork complexes. The sacred spaces were created by mounds and earthworks fashioned into shapes designed to funnel the movement of those participating from one key area to another. As such, the ancients saw the sacred sites as magic machines of earth. While Portsmouth, Ohio’s earthworks are exceedingly complex and show all of the necessary elements in the journey of the soul, it should be expected that there are many other American mound sites with the same basic stellar alignments encoded into their structure.

Marietta, Ohio Earthworks

The earthworks at Marietta, Ohio are found at the confluence of the Muskingum River with the Ohio River. The Hopewell Culture site at Marietta was first constructed and utilized around 100 B.C.E. but may have earlier components dated to the earlier Adena people. Two large earthen squares (formed by linear embankments of earth) dominated the site with the squares aligned to the semicardinal directions. (See the attached survey from Squier & Davis.) The largest square enclosed 50 acres and had four large truncated mounds on its interior along with other features. On the southwest side of the square, toward the Muskingum River, an opening was made. From the opening a 150-foot wide, graded, ceremonial walkway led down to the river. The walkway extended nearly 700 feet and had outer walls of earth enclosing it on each side that were an astounding 10-20 feet high. On a high bluff on the other side of the Muskingum River were several small stone mounds. The walkway is known as the “Sacra Via” (sacred way).

The second square was on the southeast side of the larger square and enclosed 27 acres. A large, 30-foot high conical burial mound, enclosed by a wide and deep moat, was constructed on the outside of this square further to the southeast and had several long linear embankments arranged with it. One major embankment led from this “Conus” mound into the square.

Research by archaeologist William Romain (“Archaeology of the Sacred,” 2015) has shown that the Winter Solstice sunset was seen to occur on the high horizon on the other side of the Muskingum River from the largest square directly through pathway of the Sacra Via. The Winter Solstice sunrise was seen from the Quadranaou Mound in the large square directly across the large Conus mound. Thus, just as Portsmouth showed alignments to the Winter Solstice, Marietta also does.

Stellar Alignments at Marietta

Using the computer program Starry Night Pro, several stellar alignments at Marietta were calculated for the Winter Solstice in 100 B.C.E. Note that the horizons are formed by high cliffs in several areas. The azimuths and horizon elevations used were earlier calculated by Romain (2015).

First, it was shown that Scorpius was below the horizon at night and was not visible. In addition, the Constellation of Cygnus was visible at nightfall and was seen to set at 8:30 on the northwest horizon in a direct line from the large Conus mound, through the adjacent square.

At the same time, Orion was seen to rise from the southeast at nightfall directly above the Capitolium mound from the Quadranaou mound in the large square. Finally, Orion was seen to set into the horizon before dawn on the horizon across the Muskingum River. At 2:20 AM Orion was just above the spot where the solstice sunset occurred directly down the path formed by the Sacra Via and within 10 minutes it is below the horizon. This would be the path taken by the departing soul when the leap to Orion’s Nebula was made.

In sum, all of the necessary elements of the Path of Souls journey were present at ancient Marietta. One of the key elements of the path of souls journey present at both Portsmouth and Marietta involves the location of the rivers and the western alignment to Orion. In both cases, a body of water (the rivers) was on the southwest pathways aimed at the setting of Orion’s Nebula. It was important in the death journey that the leap to Orion’s Nebula occurred across water.

Note: British author Andrew Collins first proposed the significance of Cygnus in the death journey of the soul some years ago and has shown that ancient beliefs involving Orion and Cygnus appear to have been developed as long ago as 18,000 years, when Deneb served as the North Star.
Archaeotrek—Alternate Perceptions Magazine, February 2016

Why “Fringe” Author’s Don’t Believe Professionals—Part 1
Facts Do Matter: Wikipedia’s “Guerrilla Skepticism” Deceptions

by: Dr. Greg Little

With increasing frequency I read articles and blogs by many professionals bemoaning their assertion they are not trusted by those who believe in what they call “alternative” history or science. They also like to call those who disagree with them as “fringe” believers or fringe authors. According to some skeptics, I’m a fringe author.

With this brief article, my hope is to begin the process of making some explanations—not that it will make a difference to the skeptics. Alternative theory “believers” and fringe authors are often said to be stupid, gullible, misled, or driven by greed. The same people making such accusations often then ask for money. Or they put out excessively high-priced books that contain factual errors—or outright lies if you like that term better. And that’s my real issue. Most of us are already aware that a lot of what the skeptics call “facts” are simply their beliefs or what they want people to believe. Beliefs can be very resistant to change. So let’s put that aside.

For myself, my distrust of the mainstream began emerging when I carefully analyzed textbook pronouncements that were made by professionals as proven facts. Many of these statements were accompanied by derision and various comments made to discredit. Some of the distrust started as I became aware of the “Clovis First” controversy, when some mainstream archaeologists openly asserted that evidence refuting Clovis First was deliberately being covered up my the mainstream. A bit later, when I made an analysis of Edgar Cayce’s statements about America’s mound builders, I was introduced to a couple of archaeology textbooks used in just about every academic archaeology department in the US. According to them, Cayce claimed that he had secret Atlantean texts. They related that Cayce claimed he could cure the terminally ill. They claimed that more than 30% of all of his readings contained information about Atlantis. They also claimed that the name “Churchward” was mentioned repeatedly by Cayce during his readings. Another skeptical text claimed that Cayce entered trances where he allowed himself to be possessed by entities from earlier lives. For the record, every single one of these is utter crap, completely untrue. They are the result of sloppy scholarship, utter lies, or perhaps something even worse. A bit later I encountered a host of lies, distortions, and false statements made by archaeologists and academics about items found in the Bahamas.

Now the above represents just one professional person’s investigation of what academic “scientists” assert about one very narrow area in what skeptics call the fringe. But I’m aware that individuals who investigate other areas of interest have come to the same conclusions when they have evaluated the alleged “professional’s” pronouncements about their topic. Again, I’m not really talking about beliefs here. It is possible to completely and accurately evaluate some things. For example, it can be proven that not a single time did Edgar Cayce use the name “Churchward” in his readings. It can be proven that less than 5% of his readings even mentioned Atlantis.


Today, we have another source often thought to be factual—using the same tactics—and it is the most used information source that exists. Wikipedia, which began as an online encyclopedia in 2001, has become the most used “information” source by the vast majority of humans. Supposedly it can be edited by anyone, but that’s not precisely true. Large parts of Wikipedia are controlled by skeptics who promote their causes through shrewd distortions and clever wording. There is a group of “Guerrilla Skeptics” who devote much of their time and energy to sanitizing particular entries in the online encyclopedia even to the extent of making content permanent and unchangeable.

According to their wikipedia page, “The mission of the Guerrilla Skepticism editing team is to improve skeptical content of Wikipedia. We do this by improving pages of our skeptical spokespeople, providing noteworthy citations, and removing the unsourced claims from paranormal and pseudoscientific pages.” One reasonable interpretation of this is that they make skeptics look as good as possible and make the “others” look as bad as possible.

While there are numerous pages on the online source that can be examined for the accuracy of the skeptics, we’ll look at just two. One is a prominent psychic and the other a prominent skeptic. Some readers may not know that earlier revisions to wikipedia pages are available by clicking on the “”View History” tab and more information can be found by clicking on “Talk.” Those both become relevant and can give interesting clues.

Edgar Cayce

The wikipedia entry on Cayce caught my attention for several reasons. One major reason is, as earlier mentioned, that I previously found archaeology textbooks that contained outright lies and major deceptions regarding Cayce. I’m not arguing that anything Cayce related as a psychic was true or untrue, I’m just looking at what is stated as fact about him on wikipedia.

One of the claims made on the Cayce entry is that: “Until September 1923, his readings were not systematically recorded or preserved. However, an article published in the Birmingham Post-Herald on October 10, 1922, quotes Cayce as saying that he had given 8,056 readings as of that date and it is known that he gave approximately 13,000–14,000 readings after that date.”

One problem in this claim can easily be seen by clicking on the “Birmingham Post Herald” link included on the wikipedia page. The Birmingham Post Herald did not exist until 1950! There were earlier newspapers in Birmingham that eventually merged in 1950 to become the Post Herald, but if you look for the article that supposedly “quotes Cayce as saying that he had given 8,056 readings as of that date” you won’t find it easily.

Curious about it, I contacted the head of the Cayce organization and the archives in the Edgar Cayce Foundation. They didn’t have the article. In December 2015 my wife, Pam Martello, and I went to the Birmingham library and made a search through the microfilm of the then-existing newspapers. We found the article in the “Birmingham Age Herald.” There is one relevant statement from Cayce in the article. It is the very first sentence in the half page article. It reads, “During the twenty-two years in which I have given whatever gifts I possess for the benefit of suffering humanity, I have diagnosed eight thousand and fifty six cases.”

However, nowhere in the article does it relate that these were 8,056 “readings.” Many of Cayce’s readings may have involved more than one case. At least 400 of Cayce’s readings prior to 1922 are fully documented and several of them do involve more than one person. It’s not possible to know precisely how many readings were made that involved the eight thousand and some “cases.” It is an inaccurate and misleading leap to go from eight thousand cases to eight thousand “lost” readings. This issue of “lost readings” was used in other parts of wikipedia to imply that some of Cayce’s readings could not be substantiated and might have questionable material. It is true that not all of the early Cayce readings have been preserved—but some were. And the statement that Cayce said he had given “8,056 readings” before 1922 is inaccurate and misleading.

The “history” of the Cayce wikipedia page also contains an unsubstantiated claim about Cayce in the time period of 1920-23 that was active on wikipedia from August 2005 until December 2006. It read: “At this time Cayce had several affairs, and a falling out with Gertrude.” Gertrude was Cayce’s wife and there is no proof whatsoever of this claim. Yet there it was, given as a fact, without any reference or source.

There are more things on the Cayce wikipedia page that are inaccurate and designed to somehow smear Cayce’s reputation, however, that’s enough for the moment. If one examines the individuals who made many of the thousands of edits on the Cayce wikipedia page many of the key wiki skeptics pop up. In brief, claiming sexual impropriety and “lost” readings that can’t be substantiated are the goal of the entries. It is a ploy, but it’s worth noting that many of Cayce’s readings before 1922 are on file. A search of the official reading database at the ARE shows the first documented reading dated in 1910 with at least 400 prior to 1922. Over his lifetime 26 different people served as stenographers for his readings.

James “The Amazing” Randi

Like Cayce, Randi doesn’t need much of an introduction. As the cofounder of CSI (Committee For Skeptical Inquiry), Randi stands as the best known of all skeptics just as Cayce is the best known American psychic. Randi has, as this article relates, had decades of “perfectly positive press.” Wikipedia’s glowing page on Randi does mention two somewhat negative items about him. One was that he lost a lawsuit (but no damages were assessed) for calling a man a child molester. In 2011 the US State Department arrested Randi’s longtime lover and spouse, a Venezuelan man who had assumed an American’s identity, who had been with Randi since 1986. That’s it. The last paragraph on Wikipedia’s entry on Randi ends by stating he never smoked, took narcotics, or became inebriated. There is no mention of Randi’s possible involvement with identity theft. Nor will most readers be aware of Randi’s sex phone calls. According to a blog page, Randi claims he participated in it at the request of a police chief. You can hear them here.

Skeptics have certainly taken over wikipedia and, as the people skeptics refer to as “fringe believers” read such things, it simply reaffirms their distrust of the mainstream. You can also read some of the outrageous claims made by skeptics and conclude that it is somehow in their interest to create a simmering conflict. Skeptics see themselves in a battle. But it’s not a battle of facts. It’s a battle of beliefs. How is that possible to prove? It’s simple, because the facts are twisted or simply made up to support their beliefs. You can say that I read what skeptics have written and I can’t believe it.

It’s clear that the skeptics do a great job of sanitizing skeptical entries on wikipedia. There are actually a lot of articles on the web about skeptics and their main guy. In the interest of fairness one should read them. Below are just a few.













Archaeotrek—Alternate Perceptions Magazine, February 2016

The Round Towers of Ireland

by: Jeanne Gripp

The Round Towers of Ireland have been an enigma for centuries. Many researchers have mused that the towers were built by early Christian monks to be used for a variety of purposes; relic storage, belfries, lookout towers or even sanctuaries from raiders. While Christian monks may have utilized these towers for their own intents and purposes, the towers' true purpose may have been far from what modern day researchers believe.

Let's begin by looking at their construction. The round towers are built using a double wall method. This building style was common in ancient Rome but the Romans never made it to Ireland. At least no evidence has been found of Roman habitation in Ireland. The mortar used to hold the stones together is also of Roman design - a mixture of sand, lime, horsehair, and oxblood. A recipe not far from modern day mortar mixes but much stronger. 

The stones are not always from local sources. All the towers which have been studied are constructed from paramagnetic stone. "Paramagnetism is the ability of a substance to collect or resonate to the magnetic fields of the Cosmos." according to Phil Callahan, Ph.D. who did a great deal of research into paramagnetism. Often the proper type of stone - granite, sandstone, clay slate - had to be brought in from distant sources for the construction. The gap between the walls was frequently filled with various types of boulders and other rubble.

The builders of these ancient structures are unknown. Some researchers feel that early Christians arriving from Europe could have constructed them over sacred pagan sites. While others believe them to be much older, possibly having a link to the ancient Egyptians. Perhaps the Phoenicians who eventually came to the British Isles brought the knowledge needed to build such magnificent structures. We do know that many towers had been built by 448 AD when many were toppled by a great earthquake. The actual construction of these towers was no easy feat with some standing an impressive 75-100 feet tall. The doorways of the majority of the round towers are not at ground level, but many feet up with the highest being 27 feet off the ground. This fact has led many to theorize that the towers were defensive structures in which people would hide from marauding invaders. Access to the tower could be made via a rope ladder which could be pulled up when any threat was near. But even this line of thought is flawed because the very towers which could save a clan from death or slavery could very easily have been turned into a death trap should a fire be set in the lower level. 

The windows of the towers follow no set rule. Though in the majority of the towers, a window is set above the door and the remainder will spiral up the tower. The towers are positioned so that the doors will face east. It is believed that this positioning causes the energies to flow into the building or tower and accumulate at the back of the structure where the altar or sacred chamber might have been located.

All the towers appeared to have a roof or had a roof at one time. This roof would have been conical in shape and also made from stone. Evidence of floors in the towers can be seen. Ladders would have been used to gain access to them. The wall thickness can vary from 3ft - 4.5 ft. The base circumference ranges from 45ft - 55ft.

While Ireland has the most round towers, they can also be found in other countries like England and France with only a slight variation on design. It has even been postulated that round towers can be found in the Americas. Some examples of round towers can be found in the American Southwest. The round towers began their life by themselves but as Christianity took hold, churches and cemeteries were built near the towers. The sacredness of the Tower site was felt and man wanted to make use of the energy there, even if man didn't know what the energy was or what to do with it. 

Dowsers have dowsed the areas around the round towers and have found that the towers are located on the intersection of two underground streams. This intersection is a source of both positive and negative energy as the underground waterways radiate energy heavy with positive ions and other intense forms of radiation. A person can feel enlightened and invigorated if exposed to this energy for short periods of time but long term exposure can be detrimental to one's health, leading to serious illness. Interestingly, the doorways are approx. the same width as the underground stream(s). Coincidence?

Prof. Philip S. Callahan, Ph.D. studied the round towers when he was stationed in Ireland during World War II. He discovered that the placement of the towers mirrored the positions of constellations seen in the sky above at the time of the winter solstice. Callahan believed them to be giant earth antenna which drew in powerful paramagnetic waves or energy and dispersed that energy to surrounding soil and countryside. By day these towers would resonate to the magnetic energy of the sun and by night to radio waves from the particular part of the sky to which they are aligned. These towers also collect and amplify extra-low frequency radiation like the Schumann resonance. These extra-low frequencies are vital to life on Earth. The round towers had to be built from paramagnetic material in order for them to be able to collect, amplify and disperse this energy. Callahan also discovered that the 'doorways' of the towers were placed where the Schumann Resonance was the strongest. And to strengthen this already strong process, many of the towers were primitive orgone generators (orgone was discovered by Wilhelm Reich) with the wood floors being the organic material and the stones as the inorganic material. The steles found in Mesoamerica and the earthen mounds in the United States serve a similar purpose.

When he was stationed in Ireland during the 1940’s, Callahan had noticed how many of the towers were surrounded by lush grass. He believed that the towers enriched the surrounding countryside with their energy. Some modern day researchers disagree with Callahan’s observations, citing the stark, bare ground which can be found in close proximity to many of the towers as reason to believe that the towers have no influence over how fertile the soil is. It is the author’s opinion that the intent of these areas has been spoiled by the intrusion of modern man, causing the soil to become barren.

Many modern day farmers have experimented with placing towers in their fields to increase crop production. These farmers report larger yields, healthier plants, and less water usage. An interesting side effect of installing round towers are the reports of more rain falling in the areas near the towers. Could the towers be attracting water to them, either via the rain or by way of underground streams?

Even the home gardener could reap the benefits of a round tower being installed in or near the garden. But the proper placement of these towers is best done after dowsing the area. If a tower is not placed in a proper location, then no effects may be felt.


Moore, A., Stone Age Farming: Austin, TX : Acres U.S.A., 2012
Callahan, P. Ph.D., Paramagnetism, Austin, TX : Acres U.S.A., 1995
Lisle, H, The Enlivened Rock Powders, Metairie, LA : Acres U.S.A., 1994

Image Source:

Jeanne Gripp is a freelance writer, dowser and subtle energy worker who lives in the shadow of Pikes Peak. A Colorado native, Jeanne explores the connection between unknown lights, strange creatures, ancient legends, and earth energy lines. Jeanne has spent a lifetime of searching for answers. Only to find more questions. Her articles and a book are an attempt to compile and explain the relationship between many of the anomalies that she has experienced over time.
Archaeotrek—Alternate Perceptions Magazine, March 2016

Star Portal Alignments at the Winterville, Mississippi Native American Indian Mound Complex

by: Dr. Greg Little

Previous articles identified definitive stellar alignments at the ancient Hopewell Culture (circa 200-100 B.C.) mound and earthwork sites of Portsmouth, Ohio and Marietta, Ohio. Sightlines between mounds and earthen pathways to the horizon were established by these ancient Native American tribes to delineate the correct time for conducting a death ritual. The ritual was designed to aid the souls of deceased tribal members in making the death journey to the “Path of Souls.” The journey was a key element in the tribal beliefs and ceremonies held by several Mound Building cultures.

The Path of Souls ritual involves four key alignments of mounds and earthworks to the horizon, all of which are designed to allow observers to view the stellar event from the top of one major mound across another mound or earthwork placed in precise position. It is thought that tall, large wooden posts were erected on the mounds to show the spot on the distant horizon where the stellar event took place. Herb Roe’s reconstruction of Winterville depicts several vertical posts (Wikipedia Commons).

The necessary stellar alignments in the Path of Souls journey appear to be: 1) The place on the horizon where the sun sets on the Winter Solstice; 2) The horizon location where the Cygnus Constellation sets shortly after sunset; 3) The place on the horizon where the Orion Constellation is first seen at sunset; and, 4) The location on the horizon where Orion sets just before dawn. One additional stellar element is needed. That is that the Scorpius Constellation needed to be below the horizon and not visible when the ceremony took place.

The core ideas in the Path of Souls’ death journey are well established and accepted by mainstream archaeology (Little, 2014). It was believed by many Mound Builder tribes that the soul, termed the “free-soul,” made a journey to the stars after death. The journey could only be taken at a time when Scorpius was not visible. This was because Scorpius was believed to be the ruler of the underworld and would snatch the soul. Thus, the journey was typically made at a time in the winter when the Scorpius Constellation was below the horizon. At many mound complex sites, the best time was at the Winter Solstice, when all of the key elements aligned. (This is partly why many mound cultures stored the bundled bones of the deceased.)

In brief, at dusk, the soul journeyed to the west where it came to a body of water. It then waited till early morning when Orion’s Nebula (Messier-42) was about to descend below the horizon. Orion’s Nebula is the fuzzy spot below the three belt stars of Orion. At that moment the soul made a leap toward the nebula. It was thought to be a slit in the sky, a portal (called an “ogee”) that allowed the soul to pass safely through the underworld during the day. The next night, the soul started a journey along the Milky Way toward the north. The Milky Way was the Path of Souls. The Milky Way was seen as a river of other souls making the same journey and was the pathway all souls took. On the path there were various tasks, but the soul eventually made it to a fork in the path. The fork was the Dark Rift of the Milky Way, where it splits into two sides. At this split, the soul encountered a judge or mediator represented by a large raptor bird. The Constellation of Cygnus was the bird. If the soul passed the tests, the soul was allowed to make a final journey out of the sky dome through a portal believed to be the star Deneb, the brightest star of Cygnus.

The Path of Souls idea is primarily seen by archaeology as a Mississippian Era ideology. The Mississippian cultures erected far larger mounds than did the Hopewell and most of the iconography related to the path of souls has been found on Mississippian artifacts.

The Winterville site is a Mississippian Era mound complex that flourished in A.D. 1200. It had at least 15 mounds when it was surveyed by C.B. Moore in 1907. (See map.) Fourteen mounds were arranged in an oblong shape around a huge central mound fashioned into a truncated pyramid some 55-feet in height. Open plaza areas surrounded the central mound.

In 1987 several solar alignments were checked by archaeologists at Winterville. They found a definitive alignment from the central mound across another platform mound that indicated the spot where the sun set on the Winter Solstice in 1200 A.D. (Sherrod & Rolingson, 1987). Utilizing the computer program Starry Night Pro, the key stellar alignments in the Path of Souls concept were checked for the Winterville site on the Winter Solstice in A.D. 1200. It was assumed that all key alignments to stars would be from the central mound.

The first item checked was the visibility of the Scorpius Constellation on the Winter Solstice night. Results showed that Scorpius was below the horizon the entire night rising only after dawn when it could not be seen.

The second alignment was the visibility and actions of Cygnus. At dusk Cygnus was visible on the northwest horizon and it fell below the horizon at 9:00 PM. As viewed from the central mound, the setting of Cygnus was directly over Moore’s Mound O. The final alignments checked were the rising and setting of Orion. At 6:00 PM Orion was seen to rise on the southeast horizon directly over Moore’s Mound E. It traversed the sky until 4:00 AM when it set nearly due west directly over Moore’s Mound M. The illustration with this article shows the alignments. Finally, the Mississippi River is due west of Winterville, serving as the body of water where the soul had to wait.

In summary, as with the previously examined Hopewell sites, all of the necessary elements for the Path of Souls idea were present at ancient Winterville. It is likely that similar alignments will be found at many Mississippian sites and more Hopewell sites, but one unanswered question remains. Where did the idea originate?

British author Andrew Collins raised the question about the importance of Cygnus around 2008. He found that Deneb, the brightest star of Cygnus, was the North Star some 18,000 years ago and believes that it may have gained its significance at that time.

Differences Between Hopewell and Mississippian Alignments

Hopewell sites where the Path of Souls’ stellar alignments are incorporated into earthworks appear to be widely spaced formations connected by graded, earthen walled pathways. For example, at Portsmouth, Ohio, the pathways ran over 14 miles connecting three distinctive sites. On the other hand, Mississippian mound complexes tend to be dominated by large platform mounds with associated plaza areas with other mounds surrounding the plazas. However, many Mississippian mound complexes were built as fortresses with high palisade walls with bastions placed at regular intervals. Sometime toward the end of the Adena/Hopewell periods (circa A.D. 100-500) it appears that war became more frequent and a centralization of power and control occurred within various tribes and clans. This resulted in the construction of some Hilltop Forts as well as the development of walled Mississippian villages. In essence, it is likely that sites like Portsmouth, with their widely scattered and unprotected earthworks were seen as too exposed and dangerous to tribal leaders. Thus, the Path of Souls ritual, which is thought to have been used by tribal leaders as a means of controlling the populace, was performed within the confines of protected areas in Mississippian times.


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Path of Souls

Edgar Cayces Atlantis

On the Edge of Reality


The Search of Edgar Crace's Atlantis DvD

The Yucatan Hall of Records

Ancient Mound Builders

Alien Energy: UFOs, Ritual Landscapes and the Human Mind


Path of Souls

New Book

The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Native American Indian Mounds & Earthworks


Path of Souls


Visitors from Hidden Realms

Ancient South America

The ARE's Search for Atlantis

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Monday, June 17, 2019